Телефон і день Валентина

Усім відомо, що 14 лютого всі святкують день Валентина. І, безумовно, всі закохані раді цьому святу, адже можна зайвий раз побалувати свою кохану людину подарунком, романтичною вечерею, відвідинами театру. Та чи всі знають, що саме цього дня винайшли такий чудовий засіб зв'язку - телефон?

Перший телефон

14 лютого 1876 р. Олександр Грехем Белл (1847—1922), професор фізіології органів мовлення Бостонського університету, запатентував у США свій винахід — телефон. Ідея створення звичного для усіх нас телефону зародилася не на порожньому місці.

У 1860 р. учитель школи для глухонімих м. Фрідріхсдорф Філіпп Рейс (1834 — 1874) із підручних засобів змайстрував електричний телефон, що особливого успіху не мав. Було виготовлено кілька телефонів Рейса, а один із них опинився у шотландському університеті в Единбурзі, де на той час навчався американець англійського походження Олександр Грехем Белл. Ознайомившись з телефоном Рейса, він вирішив створити апарат, за якого сподівався навчити говорити глухих дітей. Відмовившись від принципу Рейса, Белл звернувся до основ науки про електрику. До речі, згодом він сказав: «Я винайшов телефон завдяки незнанню електротехніки. Жодна людина, хоча б елементарно знайома з нею, нізащо не винайшла б телефон». І справді, його апарат був на диво простий, а якби Белл був обізнаний із законами електротехніки, конструкція була б набагато складнішою.

У тому ж 1876 р. телефон Белла продемонстрували відвідувачам Всесвітньої виставки у Філадельфії, а в 1881-му на міжнародній виставці в Парижі до його апарата вишикувалися величезні черги.

Перша телефонна лінія в Європі з'єднала 5 листопада 1877 р. берлінський поштамт із телеграфом (довжина лінії — близько 2 км). 12 січня 1881 р. у Берліні було видано перший телефонний довідник, а перша телефонна станція запрацювала у 1879 р. у м. Нью-Хевен (США).

Попри появу мобільного зв'язку, телефон вірою і правдою слугує нам і донині.

За матеріалами газети "Порадниця".



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Автор: wwwe
E-mail: wwhaiyan66@gmail.com
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